Article TitleAlbalasmeh, A., Gharaibeh, M. A., Mohawesh, O., Alajlouni, M., Quzaih, M., Masad, M., & El Hanandeh, A. (2020). Characterization and Artificial Neural Networks Modelling of methylene blue adsorption of biochar derived from agricultural residues: Effect of biomass type, pyrolysis temperature, particle size. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society. 24(11), 811-823; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jscs.2020.07.005.
AbstractBiochar has been explored as a sorbent for contaminants, soil amendment and climatechange mitigation tool through carbon sequestration. Through the optimization of the pyrolysis process, biochar can be designed with qualities to suit the intended uses. Biochar samples were prepared from four particle sizes (100–2000 mm) of three different feedstocks (oak acorn shells, jift and deseeded carob pods) at different pyrolysis temperatures (300–600 C). The effect of these combinations on the properties of the produced biochar was studied. Biochar yield decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for all particle sizes of the three feedstocks. Ash content, fixed carbon, thermal stability, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), specific surface area (SSA) of biochar increased.


Article Title
Sura Al-Harahsheh1, Ahmed A. Al-Taani2,3,*, Hani Al-Amoush1, Akram Shdeifat4, Atef Al-Mashagbah5, Marwan Al-Raggad6, Raya Al- Omoush4, Hassan Al-Kazalah4, Maher Hraishat7, Refaat Bani-Khalaf7 , Khaled Almasaeid8 (2020). Assessing the Impact of Zaatari Syrian Refugee Campin Central North Jordan on the Groundwater Quality.  Jordan Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences.   JJEES (2020) 11 (4) 260-271 ISSN 1995-6681
AbstractZaatari Refugee Camp is the largest Syrian camp in Jordan with about 80,000 inhabitants. It was established in 2012 following the Syrian conflict. This refugee camp has been a constant source of concern to public authorities and local communities because it was built in the Amman-Zarqa Basin, a major groundwater aquifer system in Jordan, with a large number of wells. Thirty groundwater wells located in this refugee camp and its surrounding area were sampled and investigated for Total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, K+, Na+, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and E. coli. Groundwater wells were clustered (based on water quality data), statistically analyzed and compared with previous data (before establishing the camp), for better characterization of changes in water quality. The majority of water quality parameters showed values within the permissible limits based on Jordan standards for drinking water, with few exceptions. While weathering of rocks is the primary process governing water chemistry, uncontrolled and intensive pumping, dissolution of aquifer materials and leaching soluble salts following irregular rainfall events are contributing factors to water quality. Interestingly, groundwater samples collected from wells located in the camp and the nearest area showed a relatively better water quality, compared to other wells. This finding challenges the public opinion that groundwater wells in the vicinity of the camp would probably be of low quality. Also, this indicated that groundwater wells in this camp are probably better managed and controlled compared to others. It was also found that most water quality variables exhibited similar patterns, with lower values observed in the pre-2012 data. Although elevated levels of water quality parameters coincided with establishing the camp, no imminent threats of pollution to these groundwater resources have been observed.



Article TitleSura Al-Harahsheh, MohanadMasad*, Majed Ibrahim, Samer Al-Awaideh(2020) Study of Municipal Landfill Site For Dioxin/Furan and Chlorinated Pesticides for Al-Husainiyat landfill in Al-Mafraq Jordan. fresenius environmental bulletin. 29 (7A)6090-6101.
AbstractSeventeen congeners of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans and 16 individual components of organochlorinated pesticides were inspected in the groundwater and soil from the old and new Al-Husainiyah landfills lo-cated near the Az-zaatari refugee camp in Al-Mafraq, Jordan. The highest total concentration of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans were found in the surface soil (0–15 cm) at the old landfill site, with a value of 88.33 μg/kg (dry weight) and 2,522.2 ng/kg (dry weight), respectively. The highest sum concentration among the organochlorin-ated pesticide compounds for all samples was found for β-HCH, with a value of 182.48 μg/kg (dry weight), while the highest sum concentration among polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans congeners was found for 2,3,7,8-Tet-rachlorodibenzeno-p-dioxin with a value of 2132.11 ng/kg (dry weight). For polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans congeners, it has turned out that the highest sum of the Toxicity Equivalent concentration among the congeners was found for 2,3,7,8 tet-Dioxin with a value of 2132.1 ng TEQ/kg (dry weight). Both organochlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-diox-ins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans contaminations were found below the method limit of detection in the soil (15-30 cm) and groundwater samples. This environmental study provides up-to-date data for re-searchers around the world of organochlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-diox-ins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans concentrations in Al-Husainiyah as indicator for pollution and com-parison purposes.


Article TitleSharif Arar, Afnan Al-Hunaiti, Mohanad H. Masad, AndronikiMaragkidou, Darren Wraith and Tareq Hussein (2019) Elemental Contamination in Indoor Floor Dust and Its Correlation with PAHs, Fungi, and Gram+/- Bacteria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 3552; doi:10.3390/ijerph16193552.

In this study, we performed elemental analysis for floor dust samples collected in Jordanian

microenvironments (dwellings and educational building). We performed intercorrelation and cluster analysis between the elemental, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and microorganism concentrations.

In general, the educational building workshops had the highest elemental contamination. The age of the dwelling and its occupancy played a role on the elemental contamination level: older and more occupied dwellingshad greater contamination. The elemental contamination at a dwelling entrance was observed to be higher than in the living room. We found exceptionally high concentrations for Fe and Mn in the educational workshop and additionally, Hg, Cr, andPb concentrations exceeded the limits set by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. According to the cluster analysis, we found three major groups based on location and contamination. According to the enrichment factor (EF) assessment, Al, Co, Mn, Ti, and Ba had EF < 2 (i.e., minimal enrichment) whereas P, S, Pb, Sb, Mo, Zn, Hg, and Cu had EF > 40 (i.e., extremely enriched). In contrast, Ca and P were geogenicallyenriched. Furthermore, significant Spearman correlations indicated nine subgroups of elemental contamination combined with PAHs and microbes.


Article TitleArar, S., Alawi, M., Alnawaiseh, A. &Masad, M. Toxin Reviews (2019) Levels of Polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment Samples from Selected Jordanian Dams. accepeted. https://doi.org/10.1080/15569543.2019.1614066.

An experimental study was carried out on sediment of five Jordanian dams namely Tannur,

Mujib, Karamah, King Talal, and WadiElArab to assess the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

(PAH) concentrations by using GC/MS. King Talal dam had highest concentration of all studied pollutants flowed by WadiElArab. Both dams are considered most polluted dams, the total PAHs concentration (PPAHs) was found for both dams as 69.91 ng/g and 35.31 ng/g, respectively, also Ppg TEQ/g value was found to be 3470.95 and 278.62 for both dams, respectively.

The calculated total cancer risk for each dam shows that King Talal dam and WadiElArab had highest value which is 2.40304E–05 and 1.92897E–06, respectively. It was found that Tannur, Mujib, and Karamah dams are relatively clean with low pollution level compared to King Talal and WadiElArab dams. This is because there are no industrial activities in their surroundings and could also be explained by the fact that these compounds need harder conditions to be synthesized. It was found that source of PAHs in the sediments of all dams is related to pyrolytic processes. This environmental study provides up-to-date data for researchers around the world of PAHs concentrations in Jordanian dams as indicator for pollution and comparison purposes.


Article TitleAlawi, M., Masaad, M. & Al-Hussaini, M. Environ Monit Assess (2018) A comparative study of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (Chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and Dioxins/Furans) concentrations in cancer affected human organs with those of healthy organs. 190: 470. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6856-3.
AbstractThe concentrations of POPs (persistent organicpollutants) including 16 compounds of OCPs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs congeners, and 17 PCDDs/Fs congeners were determined in 46 human adipose tissue samples gathered from Jordanian citizens. Thirteen adipose tissue samples of healthy people were collected from Jordan University Hospital and 33 adipose tissue samples of cancer-affected patients were collected from King Hussein Cancer Center. All samples were extracted, cleaned-up, and analyzed using GC/MS. In the healthy person's samples, among the OCP compounds, the highest concentration was found for heptachlor-oxo-epoxide (5696.71 μg/kg), while among the PCB congeners, the non-ortho PCB 126 shows the highest TEQ concentrations (5554.5 μg TEQ/kg) and among the PCDDs/Fs congeners, the highest TEQ value was found for the congener 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDFs (5.93 μg TEQ/kg). For the cancer-affected patient's samples, the highest concentration among the OCP compounds was found for o,p-DDT (638.7 μg/kg), while among the PCBs congeners, the highest TEQ value was found for the non-ortho-PCB 126 (3366.24 μg TEQ/kg) and among the PCDDs/Fs congeners, the highest TEQ value was found for the congener 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDDs (20.64 μg TEQ/kg). OCP concentration level in adipose tissue samples for healthy people was 32 times higher than for cancer patient persons, while the TEQ values for dioxin-like PCB concentrations in adipose tissue samples of healthy people was 2.2 times higher than in the samples of cancer-affected patient and the TEQ values for PCDDs/Fs in adipose tissue samples of cancer-affected patient was 3 times higher than in the samples of healthy people.



Article TitleAl-Smairan, Mohammad & Al-Harahsheh, Sura & Al-Khazaleh, Hassan. (2015). Biomass Energy Utilization in Northeast Badia of Jordan. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology. 10. 1322-1329. 10.19026/rjaset.10.1829.

AbstractBiogas systems can contribute to rural development, utilization of renewable energy, climate change mitigation, as well as environmental protection. Due to its multiple benefits, the Jordan Government must made great efforts to promote the development of biogas systems in rural areas, especially household biogas plants and medium scale biogas plants for intensive livestock and poultry farms. In order to better promote and improve biogas systems in rural Jordan, a comprehensive literature review of the various sources was undertaken for this research. This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Jordan. The methodology used is holistic, combing literature review with interviews with farmers and observations of processes across the value chain in Jordan Badia regions, where biogas technology has no any history in Badia. It was revealed that wider dissemination of biogas is hampered by weaknesses in the processes and linkages among the actors. Many potential users are not aware of the technology and therefore the market remains slim. All these, coupled with inadequate policy environment, lack of stakeholder development, missing linkage to finance and few technicians, render the market unattractive to entrepreneurs who would have invested in the dissemination of the technology. The government should conduct awareness campaigns through media, translate current policies into actions to development key stakeholders, set the required institutional framework and programmes to support biogas dissemination activities. It should also train more technicians and concentrate on research and development.

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Paper title

The Use of GIS to Select the Optimum Route for Jordan National Water Carrier



Akram Shdeifat, Rida Al-Adamat, Saad Al-Ayyash, Adnan Al-Salihi, and Adnan Al-Harahsheh



The scarcity of water supply combined with limited management options of the available resources put extreme pressure on the water sector managers in Jordan to satisfy the growing demand. There are uneven distribution of water sources across Jordan where there are areas with excess volumes of water that exceeds the demand for these areas, on the other hand, there are areas with limited supplies that is hardly fulfill the demands for domestic uses.
The populated areas in Jordan are mainly concentrated in a narrow strip extended from north to south in the western parts of the country. The Idea of constructing large pipeline that cross the country from north to south close to the urbanized areas will help in better managing the limited water resources and get better distribution of water across the various communities. In this study, the international criteria of siting a national carrier pipeline are used to select the optimum route of this pipeline. The data on topography, urban areas and water sources are used with the international criteria to locate the route of the National Carrier that serves the large urban areas and collect water from the major water sources across Jordan. The results show that there is an optimum route of the National Carrier with a length of (375 km) runs in relatively flat terrain and close enough to the major water sources mainly ground water well fields and at the same time serves all major cities and districts with short distances for the lateral pipelines.



Paper title

Runoff Estimation for Suggested Water Harvesting Sites in the Northern Jordanian Badia



Saad AlAyyash, Rida Al-Adamat, Hani Al-Amoush, Odeh Al-Meshan, Zahir Rawjefih, Akram Shdeifat, Adnan Al-Harahsheh, Mohammed Al-Farajat. 2012



Jordan is characterized by severe weather conditions, therefore great temporal and spatial variations in rainfall; runoff and evaporation amounts are expected. Water harvesting has been practiced in Jordan throughout history for both irrigation and household purposes. A major research project was carried out in the Jordanian Badia on site selection criteria for rain water harvesting systems based on the integration between indigenous knowledge and the use of Geo-informatics. This work was followed by conducting a geophysical and soil investigation for five potential sites. In this study, GIS was used to investigate the potential of having enough runoff in the five selected sites to establish water harvesting dams based on rainfall, evaporation data and catchments' areas for the selected sites. It was found that the estimated runoff that could be harvested on annual basis at these sites varies between 0.2 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) in Alaasra site to 0.82 MCM in Al-Manareh (Al-Ghuliasi) site. This indicates that these sites have the potential for small scale water harvesting that could be utilized by local livestock owners in the area to water their livestock.



Paper title

Preliminary Geophysical Investigation for Suggested Water Harvesting Sites in the Northern Jordanian Badia



Hani Al-Amoush, Rida Al-Adamat, Saad AlAyyash, Odeh Al-Meshan, Zahir Rawjefih, Akram Shdeifat, Adnan Al-Harahsheh and Mohammed Al-Farajat. 2012



In this study, an integration of geophysical survey methods including Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES), ground geo-magnetic methods and soil-samples texture analysis were performed at selected suggested water harvesting sites in the Northern Jordanian Badia to investigate and characterize the shallow subsurface stratigraphic sequences and structures. The preliminary results of geoelectrical investigations provided general picture about the nature of subsurface stratigraphical sequences at each surveyed site. Moreover, the results of ground geo-magnetic investigations indicated to the presence of near-surface subsurface faults that could play a negative role for establishing water harvesting dams at Al-Subhi-1 site and to a lesser extent at Al-Ghulaisi site. The soil textural analysis of Al-Subhi-1 site was found to be of a loamy sand type, whereas the other five sites were found to be of a clayey loam type. However, further high resolution geophysical techniques including the use of low-frequency Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) and 2D-Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) are recommended to conclusively decide if these sites are suitable or not for water harvesting.



Artical title

Rida Al-Adamat, Saad AlAyyash, Hani Al-Amoush, Odeh Al-Meshan, Zahir Rawajfih, Akram Shdeifat, Adnan Al-Harahsheh, Mohammed Al-Farajat. 2012

The Combination of Indigenous Knowledge and Geo-Informatics for Water Harvesting Siting in the Jordanian Badia.



Jordan is located in an arid to semi-arid region where around 90% of its land receives an average annual precipitation of less than 100 mm while only 3% of the land receives an average annual precipitation of 300 mm or more. Jordan is characterised as a “water scarce" country because the current per capita share of water is estimated to be of the order of 140 m3 per year which is well below the 1000 m3 threshold. Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing, of rainwater. It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation or to refill aquifers as a groundwater recharge. GIS has been widely used in selecting the best sites for water harvesting schemes. This research aims at selecting optimum sites for water harvesting schemes in the Jordan arid lands (Badia) using indigenous knowledge and geo-informatics. To achieve this aim, a community-based research and desktop investigating is applied. The community-based research focused on consulting with 200 stakeholders form local communities where they provided knowledge on opportunities and constrains form their experience on water management in the arid lands where they live and interact. Also they provided information on potential location for water collecting sites that has been used for ages to provide water to humans and livestock. On the other hand, desktop research is conducted on sitting criteria for water harvesting based on physical and socio-economic characteristics. The physical criteria include rainfall volumes, slope, distance to water courses (wadis), distance form geologic faults and soil texture, where socioeconomic criteria include distance to groundwater wells, distance to urban area, distance to agriculture activities and distance to international brooders. This selecting criterion in combination with indigenous knowledge is used within GIS environment to identify optimum sites for water harvesting. GIS analysis resulted in identifying 118 potential sites. Of those, 30 sites had already recommended by the community consultations.


Article  title


Hani Al-Amoush, Abdel Rahman Al-Shabeeb, Rida Al-Adamat, A'kif Al-Fugara, Saad Al Ayyash, Akram Shdeifat, Eid Al-Tarazi and Jafar Abu Rajab. 2017


The Use of GIS Techniques and Geophysical Investigation for Flood Management at Wadi Al-Mafraq Catchment Area



The rapid expansion of urban areas over the past two decades within Mafraq City has affected the surface hydrology runoff. Developments in Mafraq City have changed the land coverage from vegetation to impervious surface (Asphalt and Buildings) which covers most of the urban areas within Mafraq City. This reduced the ability of the land to absorb rainfall and force the excess rainfall-runoff to flow faster over the surface. As a result, the West and central regions of Mafraq City recently experienced floods that have affected hundreds of people. In order to control flood and minimize its impacts on local people, it is necessary to manage such floods. The present study aims at identifying the potential sites for water harvesting dam within the Wadi Al-Mafraq watershed to control the flood that pass through the city using GIS techniques. In order to select the potential site for the water-harvesting dam, five physical criteria that affect the water harvesting were identified based on a literature review. These criteria are rainfall, soil texture, slope, material of vadoze zone and drainage density. Based on the use of the Weighted Linear Combination (WLC) method, a water harvesting potential map was generated. The outcome of the GIS analysis was validated by fieldwork investigations carried out using Time Domain Electromagnetic Geophysical method (TDEM). The TDEM results show that (10 - 25) m of silty clay, soil and alluvium deposits are dominated the proposed site as the topmost layer. Moreover, three to four distinctive subsurface geo-electrical layers were identified in terms of their resistivity, thicknesses and structures. The present study proves the importance of the integration of different techniques GIS and TDEM in water harvesting and flood management studies.



Paper title

Hani Al-Amoush, Saad Al-Ayyash, and Akram Shdeifat..2018


Harvested Rain Water Quality of Different Roofing Material Types in Water Harvesting System at Al al-Bayt University/Jordan



The concentration levels of selected chemical compositions in samples of rainwater (precipitation - open atmosphere) and runoff waters from different rooftop buildings and parking lots of Al al-Bayt University premises in Jordan have been presented and analyzed. The runoff from rooftop buildings and parking lots was compared to rainwater collected for the concentrations of the following major cations and anions: Na+1, K+1, Mg+2, Ca+2, HCO3 -1, Cl-1, NO3 -1, SO4 -2, as well as heavy metals: Al+3, Pb+2, Mn+2 and Cd+3.Furthermore, pH and total dissolved solids (TDSs) were measured. Sampling procedures were basically depending on 11 rainstorms taken after rainfall events over a period of 6 months, between December 2010 and May 2011. Average concentrations of Al+3, Cl-1, HCO3 -1, Mg+2, Na+1, Mn+2, SO4 -2 and TDSs were found to be less than or equal to those given in the Jordanian Water Standard (JWS) for drinking water, while for Ca+2, the average concentration, exceeds that given in the Jordanian Water Standard (JWS) (=75 mg/l) for all roofing materials. K+1 concentration was found to be larger than that given in the JWS (=20 mg/l) for most of the roofing materials. Additionally, the average concentration for NOଷ ିଵ was found to be larger than that given in the JWS (=50 mg/l) for seal coat. Two categories of water type were found: mixed Ca+2 – Mg+2 – Cl- -type and Ca+2 - HCOଷ ି type. The average concentration order of all roofing materials can be arranged as follows in terms of quality of harvested water: metal insulation < mixed concrete insulation < mixed asphalt insulation = concrete insulation < water insulation = seal coat insulation < roll asphalt insulation < thermal insulation.